Elastic failure of a material occurs, when the tensile stress equals yield strength, yield point or the elastic limit. Also, the elastic failure occurs according to maximum strain theory, when the maximum tensile strain equals (where, $$\sigma $$ = yield strength and E = modulus of elasticity)

In common bubble cap distillation column design practice, riser area is approximately equal to (where, Aa = Annular passage area, and Sa = Slot area)

In the design of a shell and tube heat exchanger, the corrosion allowance

In a vertical short tube evaporator (Calendria type), the

In the allocated cap area, bubble caps are generally arranged on equilateral triangular pitch. Number of caps fixed on a plate is with a

When one of the fluids is highly corrosive and has fouling tendency, it should

Floating head heat exchangers are used for the

Normally, the plate thickness of the bottoms and roofs of vertically cylindrical storage vessels as compared to that of the cylindrical shell is

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