Current Affair of September 2022
1. Recently, the Delhi government has started the "Delhi Model Virtual School" to provide opportunities to the students of the National Capital Region and beyond. It is an online platform, which will conduct completely online classes, and will help the students to complete their studies without visiting the school.
2. Nuakhai is an annual harvest festival celebrated in Odisha. Celebrated a day after Ganesh Chaturthi, this festival is the most auspicious and important social festival in western Odisha. In Nuakhai, Nua means new and Khai means food. The festival of Nuakhai is celebrated by the farmers of Odisha after the harvesting of grain.
3. Recently, Meghalaya Chief Minister Conrad K. Sangma launched an ambitious flagship program - "Rural Backyard Piggery Scheme" for farmers under National Livestock Mission at Birnihat in Ri-Bhoi district of Meghalaya. The objective of this scheme is to ensure that farmers earn a sustainable livelihood through various animal husbandry activities.
4. The Rajasthan cabinet has recently approved the "Rajasthan Handicrafts Policy-2022". Through this policy, work will be done for the upliftment of handicrafts in the state and participation in the development of the state will be ensured by empowering them.
5. Recently, the National Statistical Office (NSO), Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation released the estimates of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at constant (2022 - 23) and current prices for the first quarter (April - June) of 2022 - 23.
6. The Calcutta High Court has recently held that West Bengal Government's Duare Ration Scheme is illegal. A Division Bench of the Calcutta High Court held that the Duare Ration Scheme ultra vires the National Food Security Act, 2013 (NFSA).
7. The Government of Karnataka has recently launched "VentuRISE" - Global Startup Challenge, to recognize, reward and support growth stage startups in manufacturing and sustainability related sectors. The Startup Challenge is a part of the Bangalore Palace flagship event to be held in next month.
8. In a unique and first of its kind initiative, the Department of Science and Technology (DST) has decided to set up India's first Night Sky Sanctuary in Ladakh. Scientists from Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), Chennai, CLRI will soon visit Ladakh to set up the branch as the region is home to a wide variety of animals.
9. Recently, the National Green Tribunal (NGT) has imposed environmental compensation of Rs. 3,500 crore on West Bengal for failing to manage solid and liquid waste. Key Points In the budget of the financial year 2022 - 23, the West Bengal government had made a provision to spend about Rs. 12,818 crore on matters related to urban development.
10. Tamil Nadu Chief Minister M. K. Stalin inaugurated the School of Excellence and Model School scheme in the state in the presence of Delhi Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal. This scheme is based on the Delhi Model School Scheme. Under this scheme, 26 schools of excellence and 15 model schools of the state have been included in the first phase.
11. The Government of Rajasthan is going to launch Indira Gandhi Urban Employment Guarantee Scheme to provide employment to the residents of the city on the lines of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme run by the Central Government.
12. Recently, three cities in India have joined the UNESCO Global Network of Learning Cities. These include two cities Thrissur and Nilambur in Kerala and Warangal in Telangana. Warangal is the second UNESCO recognition for Telangana. Earlier, Ramappa Temple in Mulugu district was included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
13. Recently, Kerala Health Minister Veena George has issued orders to set up an expert committee to study human rabies deaths in Kerala following a rise in cases of stray dog bites in Kerala. According to the Kerala Health Ministry data, more than 95,000 people were bitten by dogs in eight months this year and 14 people died compared to 11 last year.
14. Union Health Minister will launch the Raktdaan Amrit Mahotsav - a nationwide voluntary blood donation drive. This special blood donation drive would be organized as part of the Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav. Registration for this mega drive can be made using E-Raktkosh portal and Aarogya Setu app.
15. The Union Finance Ministry recently set up an expert committee headed by former SEBI chief M. Damodaran to assess and recommend ways to solve regulatory issues to boost investments by private equity (PE) and venture capital (VC) in Indian startups.
16. Search engine giant Google honored Dr. Bhupen Hazarika on his 96th birth anniversary (8th September 1926) with a doodle on its webpage. The doodle has been created by Mumbai based guest artist Rutuja Mali. Dr. Bhupen Hazarika is popularly known as Sudhakantha, which means Nightingale.
17. The sixth edition of the Japan - India Maritime Exercise (JIMEX 22) was kicked off on 11th September 2022. The JIMEX 2022 is currently being hosted by the Indian Navy in the Bay of Bengal. India is being represented by three indigenously designed and built warships.
18. Asia's richest man Gautam Adani has surpassed Amazon founder Jeff Bezos to become the third richest person in the world, according to Forbes' real time billionaires list. Few days back Gautam Adani became the richest person in Asia. Then he left behind Bill Gates and Warren Buffett. After this, his dominance in the list of top-10 billionaires kept increasing.
19. A military station and a major road near the Lohit Valley on the Line of Actual Control (LAC) with China were recently named after the country's first CDS General Bipin Rawat. Kibithu is a small village on the banks of the Lohit Valley in the eastern part of India. Kibithu is considered an important place from military and strategic point of view.
20. The Jharkhand Government recently approved a proposal to grant 77 percent reservation in the state government jobs for people belonging to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, backward classes, OBC and other economically weaker sections.
21. The 'Karnataka Protection of Right to Freedom of Religion Bill' was recently passed by the state legislative council. The bill bans forced religious conversions by direct or indirect means. It gives specific procedures for undertaking a religious conversion.
22. The National Engineer's Day is observed every year on 15th September every year to recognize and pay tribute to achievements of Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya. Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya was born on 15th September 1861 in Karnataka.
23. A high-level committee has been set up to regulate the promotion of pharmaceutical products. The Government has set up a five member committee chaired by Dr. V. K. Paul, NITI Aayog member (health) to create a legal mechanism to address the issue of pharmaceutical companies giving incentives to promote their drugs and products.
24. India has been ranked 132 out of 191 countries in the recently released Human Development Report 2021 - 22 by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). Last year the country was ranked 131st. This year's report is titled "Uncertain Times, Unsettled Lives: Shaping Our Future in a Transforming World".
25. The Central Government has agreed to extend the deadline for the resettlement of Bru while reviewing the implementation of the Bru agreement. Union Home Minister Amit Shah reviewed the implementation of the Bru agreement with Tripura Chief Minister Manik Saha.
26. The Gujarat Legislative Assembly had unanimously withdrawn the Cattle Control Bill after protests from cattle rearing communities across the state. It covered 8 major cities - Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Surat, Rajkot, Gandhinagar, Jamnagar, Bhavnagar and Junagadh as well as 162 towns in Gujarat.
27. The Supreme Court recently held that women, regardless of their marital status, are entitled to safe and legal abortion until 24 weeks of pregnancy. The apex court held that any differentiation between a married or unmarried woman under abortion law was "artificial and constitutionally unsustainable".
28. Memorial made of ashes collected from rhino horns were unveiled recently at the Kaziranga National Park in Assam. The memorial having three rhino sculptures was named "Abode of the Unicorns". It has one male rhino, a female rhino and a calf.
29. Prime Minister Modi launched the new and upgraded version of Vande Bharat Express between Gandhinagar and Mumbai. The latest version has cost over Rs. 115 crore, Rs. 15 crore higher than the previous version. The new train can reach the maximum speed of 160 km per hour in 129 seconds, around 16 seconds faster than the other Vande Bharat trains.
30. The Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently gave nod for the inclusion of tribes of five states in the Scheduled Tribes (ST) category. The Union Cabinet has approved the inclusion of tribes from Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh in the ST category.
31. Kantar BrandZ India 2022 was released recently to broadly assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Indian brands, with the focus on FMCG, non-FMCG and technology brands. According to the report, India's top 75 brands together are worth USD 393 billion, equal to 11 per cent of India's national GDP.
32. The non-profit Oxfam India recently released the India Discrimination Report, 2022. Labour force participation rate (LFPR) of women in India is just 25 percent in 2021 - lesser than the figure of 42.7 per cent in 2004 - 05 and the lowest among the BRICS countries.
33. Recently, Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar inaugurated the country's largest rubber dam and a steel bridge over the Falgu river near Vishnupad temple in Bihar. The rubber dam is made of 17 mm thick rubber. This dam is 400 meters wide and 3 meters high. After the construction of the dam, its water will be stored for about two and a half kilometers.
34. Prime Minister Modi recently launched the National Logistics Policy (NLP). The National Logistics Policy aims to promote smooth movement of goods across India and boost competitiveness of the Indian goods in the domestic and international markets.
35. Recently, the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) issued the guidelines for "Early identification and intervention for mental health problems in school going children and adolescents". The guidelines were released after a nationwide survey found that exams, results and peer pressure has caused an increase in stress and anxiety levels among school students.
36. Lt. General Anil Chauhan was appointed as the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS). The Central Government appointed the former Eastern Army Commander Lt. General Anil Chauhan (retired) as the new Chief of Defence Staff (CDS).
37. The NCPCR has revamped the E-Baal Nidan portal to include more features that would ease the tasks of complainants as well as NCPCR and SCPCRs in dealing with the complaints. "E-Baal Nidan" is an online complaint mechanism launched in 2015 to enable individuals to report violations committed against a child and track the progress of the redressal of the complaint in the Commission.
38. The inaugural edition of the Naga Mircha festival was organized in Seiyhama village of Kohima district in Nagaland. The first ever Naga Mircha (King Chilli) Festival 2022 was organized in the village hall of Seiyhama village in Kohima district. The event was sponsored by the Nagaland Horticulture Department.
39. The Central Government will constitute a national commission to study the social, economic and educational status of members of Scheduled Castes or Dalits who have converted to religions other than Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism.
40. The Sample Registration System (SRS) Statistical Report 2020 was released recently by the Registrar General of India (RGI). The SRS Statistical Report 2020 revealed that there is a significant decline in infant mortality rate (IMR), Under 5 Mortality Rate (U5MR), Neonatal Mortality Rate (NMR) in India since 2014 and the country is currently in line towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030.
41. IIFL Wealth Hurun India Rich List 2022 was released recently. 1,103 individuals from 122 Indian cities have cumulative wealth of Rs. 1,000 crore wealth - a 62 percent increase in the last five years.
42. The Union Ministry of Power is currently calling for the Market Based Economic Dispatch (MBED) mechanism - a radical shift from the current decentralized, voluntary pool-based electricity market. The MBED mechanism envisages a centralized scheduling for dispatching the entire yearly consumption of electricity of around 1,400 billion units.
43. The Medical Devices (Amendment) Rules, 2022 were notified by the Union Cabinet recently. The new rules require online registration of all manufacturers of all class A medical devices. Class A medical devices are those having low-to-moderate risk to patient or user. These include surgical dressings and others.
44. The Home Affairs Ministry has notified the rules governing the implementation of the Criminal Procedure (Identification) Act, 2022. The new law enables police and central investigating agencies to collect, store, analyse physical and biological samples like retina and iris scans of arrested individuals.
45. The Chief Election Commissioner has written to the Union Law Ministry to limit anonymous political donations. He has provided several recommendations reduce election funding via black money. The Election Commission of India (ECI) is a constitutional body established to conduct and regulate elections in India.
46. Wipro has sacked employees who were involved in moonlighting. Moonlighting is the term used to describe an individual taking up a second job or multiple other work assignments besides his full-time job. The practice of working for multiple organizations while committing to one primary workplace has been taking place without the employer's knowledge.
47. The FSSAI has recently issued a draft notification on Indian Nutrition Rating (INR) modelled on the health star rating system. It requires packaged food to display the prescribed format of INR by assigning a rating from half star (least healthy) to five starts (healthiest).
48. The world's largest museum on Harappan culture is currently being set up in Rakhigarhi, Haryana. The museum on Harappan culture in Rakhigarhi would showcase some 5,000 year old artefacts belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization.
49. KRITAGYA 3.0 was launched by ICAR to promote "speed breeding" for crop improvement. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research along with its National Agricultural Higher Education Project (NAHEP) and Crop Science Division is organizing a hackathon KRITAGYA 3.0 aimed at promoting speed breeding for the improvement of crops.
50. The Central Government has launched the Sign Learn to make Indian Sign Language usage more widespread. Sign Learn is a mobile application-based Indian Sign Language Dictionary having 10,000 words. The application was launched by the Minister of State for Social Justice and Empowerment Pratima Bhoumik.
51. Indian Railways is installing Real Time Train Information System (RTIS) to automatically track train movements in real time. The RTIS was jointly developed by the Indian Railways and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
52. The Indian Government has decided to set up a separate Export Promotion Council (EPC) for Medical Devices. The new EPC would have headquarters in Yamuna Expressway Industrial Development Authority (YEIDA), Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh and regional offices in Visakhapatnam and Hyderabad.
53. The Centre has approved the proposal to redevelop three major railway stations across India. The Union Cabinet, chaired by Prime Minister Modi, has given a go-ahead for a proposal concerning the redevelopment of three major railway stations - New Delhi, Ahmedabad and Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CSMT) Mumbai.
54. The Central government has released the first-ever advance estimates of production of major Kharif crops. The Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare has released the advance estimates of production of major Kharif crops for 2022 - 23.
55. The Central Government has banned the Popular Front of India for 5 years. The Union Ministry of Home Affairs has banned the Popular Front of India (PFI) and its associations under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act for their links with terrorist groups and subversive activities.
56. Swachh Toycathon Competition was recently launched by Central Government. Swachh Toycathon was launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs under the Swachh Amrit Mahotsav. It is being hosted on MyGov's Innovate India portal.
57. Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Narendra Singh Tomar recently inaugurated the 9th Session of Governing Body of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, which is being held in New Delhi from 19th to 24th September this year.
58. The SCALE (Skill Certification Assessment for Leather Employees) app was launched by the Minister of Education and Skill Development Dharmendra Pradhan during his visit to the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) - Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI) on 20th September 2022.
59. The Kannada Language Comprehensive Development Bill was tabled at the Karnataka Legislative Assembly. The Kannada Language Comprehensive Development Bill gives preference to Kannadigas in government jobs and provides reservations to locals in private jobs generated in the state.
60. The CBI launched the Operation Megh Chakra to combat the spread of Child Sexual Abuse Materials online. The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) launched Operation Megh Chakra on 24th September 2022 to conduct searches at 56 locations across India as part of a nationwide drive against the circulation and sharing of child sexual abuse material (CSAM).
61. TamiraSES project is being jointly implemented restore Thamirabarani river. TamiraSES project is jointly implemented by the district administration of Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu and Bengaluru-based NGO Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE).
62. Encyclopedia of Tribes in Odisha was released by Odisha Chief Minister Naveen Patnaik. With the release of the five volumes of "Encyclopedia of Tribes in Odisha", Odisha became the first state in India to start an encyclopaedia on tribal communities and document their historic and unique traditions.
63. Health Minister Mansukh Mandaviya recently released the revised National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM) 2022. The revised National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM) 2022 has deleted 26 drugs, which include common gastrointestinal medicines ranitidine and sucralfate.
64. Prime Minister Modi virtually inaugurated the National Conference of Environment Ministers held in Gujarat. National Conference of Environment Ministers of all States is a two-day event held at Ekta Nagar in Gujarat on 23th and 24th September this year.
65. Bathukamma is being celebrated in Telangana from 25th September to 3rd October this year. It is a flower festival celebrated mainly in Telangana and several parts of Andhra Pradesh. Bathukamma means 'Goddess of Life'. It is a collection of flowers stacked one layer at a time and rising in a series of concentric circles like the gopuram in South Indian temples.
66. The Indian Tourism Statistics 2022 report was released by the Vice President of India Jagdeep Dhankhar on the occasion of World Tourism Day (27th September 2022). The union tourism ministry's report revealed that Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu witnessed the highest number of visits by foreign tourists in 2021.
67. R. Venkataramani, a senior advocate in the Supreme Court, has been appointed as the Attorney General of India for a period of three years. R. Venkataramani is a lawyer having an experience of 42 years of practice in the apex court of India.
68. A new target has been set under the National Clean Air Programme (NCAP). The Indian Government has set a new target of 40 per cent reduction in the particulate matter concentration by 2026 in cities under the NCAP.
69. The fourth tiger reserve has been notified by the Uttar Pradesh Government. The state cabinet has approved the notification of Uttar Pradesh's fourth tiger reserve in the Ranipur Wildlife Sanctuary (RWS) in Chitrakoot district under the Wild life (Protection) Act of 1972.
70. The Indian government recently launched the JALDOOT App and JALDOOT App e-brochure. The JALDOOT application was jointly developed by union ministries of Panchayat and Rural Development. This app can be used by Gram Rojgar Sahyak to measure the water level in a well twice a year before and after monsoon.
71. For the first time, India's apex court livestreamed the three separate constitutional bench proceedings simultaneously in YouTube. More than 8 lakh people viewed the proceedings before the three Constitution Benches. The livestreaming was closely monitored by technical support teams of the court to ensure the smooth proceedings.
72. "State of Gender Equality and Climate Change in South Asia and the HKH Region" report was released by the ICIMOD on 29th September 2022. The newly released report assessed the state of gender equality and climate change in climate affected sectors like agriculture, water and energy.
73. The Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation (IRCTC) - a public sector undertaking under the Railways Ministry is announced that it would launch the Navratri Special Tourist Train for Mata Vaishno Devi in Katra with the newly launched Bharat Gaurav tourist train on 30th September.
74. Senior Advocate Mukul Rohatgi is set to become the Attorney General for India for the second time (from 1st October). The tenure of the current Attorney General K. K. Venugopal will end on 30th September and he refused second term in the office because of his advanced age.
1. Recently, the Union Cabinet has approved a Memorandum of Understanding with the Government of Nepal on Biodiversity Conservation proposed by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. This MoU has been signed to strengthen and enhance coordination and cooperation between the two countries in the fields of forestry, biodiversity conservation and climate change.
2. Recently, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has come forward to help Sri Lanka, which is facing a historic economic crisis. The IMF has announced a loan of $ 2.9 billion to Sri Lanka. The aid aims to restore macroeconomic stability and creditworthiness in Sri Lanka as well as protect financial stability.
3. Japan may be home to some of the world's leading tech giants, but the Japanese have always been fond of old technology. But now Japan has declared war on the floppy disk to get rid of old technologies and machines.
4. Recently, UK Foreign Minister Liz Truss has been elected as the next Prime Minister of Britain and the leader of the governing Conservative Party. Liz Truss is the 56th Prime Minister of Britain and the third woman Prime Minister to lead the country.
5. Recently, a referendum in Chile rejected a proposal to replace the old charter with a new progressive constitution. According to the result of this referendum, 61.9% votes were received against the proposal for the new constitution, while 38.1% people got support. The draft resolution was drafted to replace the 1980 charter, written under the dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet.
6. Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina recently unveiled Unit-1 of Maitree Super Thermal Power Project. It is located at Rampal in Bagerhat district of Khulna division of Bangladesh.
7. Recently India's National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS) and the British Government in collaboration with BAE Systems successfully conducted a virtual ransomware drill for 26 countries to prepare for a large, widespread cyber attack. The theme of the exercise is "Energy Sector" which aims to enable national cyber crisis management teams belonging to CRI affiliates to tackle ransomware attacks on multiple power distribution companies.
8. Britain's longest-reigning monarch Queen Elizabeth II died at Balmoral Castle in Scotland on 8th September, after ruling for 70 years. She acceded to the throne on 6th February 1952 at the age of 25 after her father, King George VI died.
9. With the death of Queen Elizabeth II, Operation London Bridge became active in Britain. This is a protocol that has been in place since the announcement of the Queen's death by Buckingham Palace on 8th September. Operation London Bridge is the planning of events in the UK following the death of the head of state. Under this operation, the Prime Minister in Britain will first issue a statement on the news of the death from the government. After that she will address the public.
10. Recently US Air Force Global Strike Command successfully test-fired Minuteman III (Minuteman III ICBM) missile equipped with three test re-entry vehicles. The missile was launched from Vandenberg Space Force Base in California.
11. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Food Programme (WFP) have jointly published a report titled "Crop and Food Security Assessment Mission (CFSAM) report". The severe macroeconomic crisis has resulted in acute shortages and surging prices of essential goods such as food, agricultural inputs, fuel and medicine. In August 2022, the year-on-year food inflation rate was about 94%.
12. The US President Joe Biden appointed Dr. Renee Wegrzyn as the inaugural director of the ARPA-H (Advanced Research Projects Agency for Health) and detailed her role during his speech on the 60th anniversary of President John F. Kennedy's moonshot speech in Rice University.
13. The 2022 Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Summit will be organized in Uzbekistan from 15th - 16th September, 2022. The 2022 SCO Summit would be held in Samarkand - a city in Uzbekistan on the ancient trade route of Silk Road that connects China with the Mediterranean.
14. Exercise Kakadu 2022 commenced in Australia's Darwin on 12th September, 2022. The Exercise Kakadu 2022 (KA22) is a multinational exercise hosted by the Australian Navy in Darwin - the capital of Australia's Northern Territory.
15. Norway's central bank - Norges Bank - recently hit a major milestone in its digital currency development efforts by releasing the open source code for the country's CBDC sandbox based on the Ethereum technology. Norway's CBDC sandbox, which is accessible on GitHub, was created to provide user interface (UI) for engaging with the test network.
16. More than 100 Armenian soldiers and 50 Azerbaijani soldiers have been killed during the recent clashes at the border. The two former soviet republics have been engaged in long-running conflicts over the disputed territory of Nagorno-Karabakh region.
17. The International Water Association's World Water Congress and Exhibition was organized in Denmark from 1st - 15th September. The IWA World Water Congress & Exhibition is organized every few years across the world to bring together experts to share insights, network and do business.
18. The European Parliament has adopted a report that declared Hungary to be no longer a democracy. The European Parliament has recently adopted a parliamentary report that declared Hungary to be "a hybrid regime of electoral autocracy".
19. The temple city of Varanasi was nominated as the first-ever SCO Tourism and Cultural Capital during the recently held SCO Summit. During the 22nd Meeting of Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Council of Heads of State held in Samarkand, Uzbekistan, Varanasi was nominated as the first-ever SCO Tourism and Cultural Capital for the period of 2022 - 2023.
20. Poland has opened a new sea waterway to enable ships to sail from the Baltic Sea and the Bay of Gdansk to ports of Vistula lagoon without relying on Strait of Pilawa in Russia. This was done to symbolically demonstrate the end of Russia's influence on the country's economy and development.
21. The Assam-based Numaligarh Refinery Limited (NRL) is expected to complete the construction of India-Bangladesh Friendship Pipeline by the end of 2022. The India-Bangladesh Friendship Pipeline Project (IBFPP) aims to connect Siliguri in West Bengal, India with Parbatipur in Bangladesh's Dinajpur district.
22. 171 people have died because of Lassa fever in Nigeria despite the government's measures to reduce the spread of the viral infection across the country. Nigeria currently has the total of 917 confirmed cases of Lassa fever, with 6,660 suspected cases recorded since the start of this year.
23. The 77th session of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA77) opened on 13th September and will include a high-level debate organized from 20th - 26th September this year.
24. The Asia-pacific Institute of Broadcasting Development (AIBD) has unanimously extended India's presidency for one more year. The member countries of the AIBD have decided to extend India's presidency at the two-day General Conference of the Institute that was held in New Delhi.
25. Valery Polyakov, who held the record for the achieving the longest single stay in space, has passed away at the age of 80. Valery Polyakov's record of 437 days in space started on 8th January, 1994.
26. The US lawmakers recently voted to ratify the Kigali Amendment, making this the first time in 30 years for the US to adopt an international climate treaty. The US Senate voted ratify the 2016 Kigali Amendment to the 1987 Montreal Protocol climate treaty and phase down the use and production of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which are popular chemicals used in air conditioning and refrigeration.
27. The International Day of Sign Language is observed on 23rd September every year. The International Day of Sign Language is observed to promote the global awareness about the importance of sign language and make information and communication more accessible to people relying on sign language.
28. Sri Lanka recorded 70.2% inflation rate for August 2022. In July, the country recorded 66.7%. The National Consumer Price Index (NCPI) has increased 2.5% in August, as the food prices increased 1.7% and prices of non-food products increased 3.2%.
29. The QUAD countries have signed the Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) partnership guidelines recently to ensures expansion of scope of the QUAD alliance. The signing took place during the QUAD foreign minister's meeting held at the sidelines of the United Nations General Assembly in New York.
30. The Indian Government announced the launch of the Innovation Roadmap of the Mission Integrated Biorefineries at the Global Clean Energy Action Forum 2022 in Pittsburgh, US. It aims to enhance global collaboration and funding for energy research, development and demonstration (RD&D) during the next five years.
31. Asian Palm Oil Alliance (APOA) was formed at the Globoil Summit organized in Agra on 21st September. The APOA brings together the apex edible oil industry associations from India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Nepal, which are the major importers of palm oil.
32. Fridays for Future activists have launched climate change protests in Germany and other countries. About 2,80,000 people in over 270 cities and towns across Germany are taking part in demonstrations as part of the Fridays for Future movement.
33. The International Day for the Total Elimination of Nuclear Weapons is observed on 26th September. The Day is observed to increase public awareness about the threat of nuclear weapons and the importance of their total elimination. The aim is to achieve total elimination of nuclear weapons, which is one of the oldest goals of the United Nations.
34. World Tourism Day is observed on 27th September every year to promote tourism and spread awareness about its importance. The theme for this year is "Rethinking Tourism". It seeks to make people understand the joy of exploring the world.
35. Giorgia Meloni is set to become the first female prime minister of Italy. Giorgia Meloni is the leader of the far-right political party Brothers of Italy. The recent vote to the political party with neo-fascist origins brings in the most right-wing government Italy has witnessed since the Second World War and the fascist leader Benito Mussolini.
36. Khosta-2 variant of coronavirus found in Russian bats in Sochi National Park. A team of American researchers have found the Khosta-2 in Russian bats. The zoonotic virus is capable of infecting humans. This is unlike the Khosta-1, which is also found in Russian bats but cannot easily spread to humans.
37. The Asian Development Bank announced a $14 billion assistance to fight food insecurity in Asia Pacific. The funding was announced as part of the 55th ADB annual meeting. It will be used to combat food crisis caused by climate change and Russian war in Ukraine. The financial aid will be provided for the period of 2022 - 2025.
38. Hurricane Ian has hit the US state of Florida's southwestern coast. As one of the most powerful storms in the US history, it has torn apart homes and buildings, leaving some residents stranded. It is expected to adversely affect millions of people in the US states of Florida, Georgia and South Carolina.
39. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) have jointly issued guidelines to address mental health issues faced by global workforce. The guidelines called for addressing the threat to mental health issues among the workforce like high work burden and negative behaviours. Depression and anxiety account for 12 billion lost workdays each year, costing the global economy around 1 trillion USD.
1. Recently, a contingent of soldiers from 7/8 Gorkha Rifles of the Indian Army arrived in Russia to participate in the multilateral tactical and command exercise Vostok - 2022 to be held from 1st to 7th September 2022. In this exercise more than 50 thousand soldiers from India, China, Laos, Mongolia, Nicaragua, Syria and former Soviet countries will participate.
2. Union Home Minister Amit Shah recently launched a new online portal 'e-Awas' for CAPF personnel. With the help of this new portal, CAPF personnel will also be able to find the houses available with other forces instead of searching for accommodation available in their force.
3. Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently unveiled the new ensign of the Indian Navy which takes inspiration from the seal of the great Indian emperor Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. This new ensign has two main components: the canton national ensign in the upper left and a navy blue-gold octagon in the center of the fly side away from the staff.
4. Recently the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) approved the project to develop a more capable and powerful version of the indigenous aircraft LCA Mark 2 multirole fighter jet.
5. Recently, the Tear Smoke Unit of the Border Security Force (BSF) has developed an indigenous drone Tear Smoke Launcher. This launcher will be used to control the crowd and to release tear gas shells during riots and unrest.
6. Recently, at a special ceremony at 'Sheetal Niwas', the official residence of the President in Nepal's capital Kathmandu, Indian Army Chief General Pande was conferred with the title of Honorary General of the Nepalese Army during his ongoing visit to the Himalayan nation.
7. Project 17A's third stealth frigate 'Taragiri' was recently launched by Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited (MDL) in Mumbai. Taragiri is the third stealth warship to be built under Project 17A. The 149 m long and 17.8 m wide ship is powered by a combination of two gas turbines and two main diesel engines.
8. Recently US Air Force Global Strike Command successfully test-fired Minuteman III (Minuteman III ICBM) missile equipped with three test re-entry vehicles. The missile was launched from Vandenberg Space Force Base in California.
9. Army Chief General Manoj Pande recently visited the Ladakh sector to review Exercise Parvat Prahar and was briefed about the operational preparedness on the ground by the commanders. The exercise saw the deployment of an all new major induction of the Army.
10. A military station and a major road near the Lohit Valley on the Line of Actual Control (LAC) with China were recently named after the country's first CDS General Bipin Rawat. Kibithu is a small village on the banks of the Lohit Valley in the eastern part of India. Kibithu is considered an important place from military and strategic point of view.
11. The two day National Defense MSME Conclave and Exhibition began on 11th September 2022 in Kota, Rajasthan. Defense equipment including T-90 and BMP-2 tanks, artillery guns, various types of sniper and machine guns and military bridges are on display at the exhibition.
12. The sixth edition of the Japan - India Maritime Exercise (JIMEX 22) was kicked off on 11th September 2022. The JIMEX 2022 is currently being hosted by the Indian Navy in the Bay of Bengal. India is being represented by three indigenously designed and built warships.
13. Exercise Kakadu 2022 commenced in Australia's Darwin on 12th September 2022. The Exercise Kakadu 2022 (KA22) is a multinational exercise hosted by the Australian Navy in Darwin - the capital of Australia's Northern Territory.
14. More than 100 Armenian soldiers and 50 Azerbaijani soldiers have been killed during the recent clashes at the border. The two former soviet republics have been engaged in long-running conflicts over the disputed territory of Nagorno - Karabakh region.
15. The Indian Government has inked a Rs. 1,700 crore contract with BrahMos Aerospace Pvt Ltd for procuring BrahMos missiles. The contract was signed by the Defence Ministry to purchase 35 combat and 3 practice BrahMos supersonic dual-role surface-to-surface cruise missiles.
16. Lt. General Anil Chauhan was appointed as the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS). The Central Government appointed the former Eastern Army Commander Lt. General Anil Chauhan (retired) as the new Chief of Defence Staff (CDS).
17. The VSHORADS missile have been successfully tested at the Integrated Test Range in Chandipur, Odisha. The Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) conducted two successful tests of Very Short Range Air Defence System (VSHORADS) missile in Odisha recently.
Business, Economy & Banking
1. The HDFC Bank, the largest private sector bank in India, became the first bank in the country to issue an Electronic Bank Guarantee (e-BG) in collaboration with the National E-Governance Services Limited (NeSL). e-BG removes the need for the paper-based time consuming process, which often takes 3 - 5 days for complete due to the need for physical pick up from the bank, delivery of courier to the beneficiary, stamping and reverification.
2. The Central Government has made changes to the Foreign Trade Policy of India to activate the RBI's mechanism facilitating trade in the Indian Rupee. It allows international trade invoicing, payment and settlement in the Indian Rupee. It enables Indian importers to make payments in rupees via the special Vostro accounts of the partner country bank against the invoices for the purchasing of goods or services from the overseas seller or supplier.
3. The RBI has directed urban cooperative banks (UCBs) belonging to tier 3 and tier 4 categories to create a Board-approved policy and compliance function. The central bank has asked the urban cooperative banks with more than Rs. 10,000 crore deposits (tier 4 category) to create a board-approved compliance policy and a compliance function, including the appointment of a Chief Compliance Officer (CCO), by 1st April, 2023.
4. The REC Ltd. has been accorded the status of 'Maharatna' Central Public Sector Enterprise. It is the 12th company to be given the Maharatna Status. The Maharatna status provides the state-run company's board more power while making financial decisions.
Science & Technology
1. Recently Serum Institute of India (SII) and Department of Biotechnology (DBT) launched indigenously developed quadrivalent Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine for prevention of cervical cancer. It will be the first Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus vaccine (qHPV) in India, to prevent cervical cancer.
2. Union Home Minister Amit Shah recently launched a new online portal 'e-Awas' for CAPF personnel. With the help of this new portal, CAPF personnel will also be able to find the houses available with other forces instead of searching for accommodation available in their force. This web portal will enable online registration and allotment of residential quarters to eligible personnel of CAPFs and Assam Rifles.
3. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) has recently signed a partnership agreement with Adobe to accelerate digital creativity skills across the country. Under this agreement, Adobe will provide curriculum and expertise with the creative and digital literacy skills needed to prepare students for the current digital-first world, and train teachers to integrate digital creativity into the curriculum.
4. Under this agreement, Adobe will provide curriculum and expertise with the creative and digital literacy skills needed to prepare students for the current digital-first world, and train teachers to integrate digital creativity into the curriculum. The theme of the exercise was "Building a Strong Network to Combat Ransomware Attacks".
5. The University Grants Commission (UGC) has recently launched an online portal named 'e-Samadhan'. Through this portal, students taking admission in any university or facing any kind of problem after admission will be able to find solutions to their problems. Students will now be able to directly report their problems to the UGC across the country through this portal.
6. Recently NASA has updated its 3D visualization 'Eyes on the Solar System' tool. This new and improved system now makes interplanetary travel easier and more interactive than before. This update offers better controls, better navigation, and tons of new opportunities to learn about our own Earth, the Solar System, asteroids, and more.
7. Recently, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has successfully tested the Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (IAD) technology that can aid in cost-effective recovery of spent rocket stages and land payloads safely on other planets. It has been designed and developed by Vikram Sarabhai Space Center (VSSC).
8. Recently, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) captured its first image of an exoplanet at, or planet outside the Solar System. The captured exoplanet is named HIP 65426 b and is about six to 12 times the mass of Jupiter. It was first discovered in 2017 using the SPHERE instrument on the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope.
9. The country's first intranasal COVID vaccine iNCOVACC by Bharat Biotech has recently received DCGI approval for primary immunization against the infection for people above the age of 18 years. This vaccine has been named ChAd36-SARS-CoV-S COVID-19.
10. Union Minister for Road Transport and Highways Nitin Gadkari recently inaugurated the country's first prototype drone for transporting human organs to facilitate quick transplantation in hospitals. With this innovation, it will take much less time to transport the transplanted organs from airport to hospital.
11. A new catfish species has been discovered by ICAR-NBFGR. It belongs to the genus Pangasius. It was found in Mettur Dam in Salem district, Tamil Nadu, by the ICAR-National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources (ICAR-NBFGR).
12. The XR Startup Program was jointly launched by MeitY Startup Hub and Meta to create the next generation startups focusing on Extended Reality Technologies. The XR Startup Program is an accelerator program aimed at supporting and accelerating extended reality (XR) startups in India.
13. Hughes Communications India (HCI) and ISRO has jointly launched India's first high-throughput satellite (HTS) broadband service. HCI - a joint venture company of US-based Hughes Network Systems and Indian telecom operator Bharati Airtel - launched the first high throughput satellite broadband internet service in India.
14. CERT-In has given advisory on SOVA virus - a novel mobile banking "Trojan" virus that is currently targeting Indian customers. Sova virus is capable of stealthily encrypting an android phone for ransom. It can add false overlays to a range of apps and mimic over 200 banking and payment applications to con the android users.
15. Union Minister of Science and Technology Dr. Jitendra Singh has recently provided financial aid to around 53,000 students under the INSPIRE Scheme. Its purpose is to attract talent to science at an early age and create the required resource pool for strengthening the science and technology system and research and development base in the country.
16. Scientists in China have successfully cloned wild Arctic Wolf for the first time. A Beijing-based gene firm had succeeded in cloning the Arctic Wolf to prevent the endangered species from going extinct. The newly cloned wolf was named Maya, which means good health.
17. The Perseverance Rover has collected samples having high concentration of organic matter from the Martian surface. It has collected several organic rock samples from an ancient river delta on Mars. These samples are currently stored for collection by future Mars missions that would return them back to the Earth.
18. NASA's InSight lander has detected seismic and acoustic waves caused by the impact of four meteoroids and found the location of the craters left by these space rocks. For the first time, scientists were able to calculate the locations of craters left by meteoroids on the Martian surface based on seismic and acoustic waves.
19. Ethereum - the world's second largest blockchain - has transitioned from the legacy "proof-of-work" to a "proof-of-stake" consensus mechanism. The Ethereum Merge is an upgrade that changes how new crypto transactions take place on the blockchain.
20. A new study published in the journal Nano Today revealed that nanoplastics travel up the human food web via plants, insects and fish. Nanoplastics are plastic debris particles that are smaller than 1,000 nanometre, which is equal to one billionth of a metre.
21. Comedian Raju Srivastava's post-mortem was conducted using a novel technique called virtual autopsy. Virtual autopsy or virtopsy is a new technique of post-mortem that does not include dissections. This technique requires lesser time when compared to the traditional method of post-mortem.
22. A new type of crystal was discovered by researchers in China from the near side of the Moon. The newly discovered crystal was named Changesite-(Y) after the Chinese moon goddess Chang'e. This small and transparent crystal was found among the volcanic debris of the near side of the moon.
23. Honeybees are the only non-humans found to be capable of learning parity categorization. Parity classification is the categorization of numbers as either odd or even. It is used when dealing with real-world objects that can be paired. If an element cannot be paired in a group, then the number of objects are odd.
24. President of India Droupadi Murmu recently inaugurated the Integrated Cryogenic Engine Manufacturing Facility of Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) in Bengaluru. An MoU that was signed between the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) in 2013 for the establishment of a facility for the manufacturing of Cryogenic Engine modules at HAL, Aerospace Division.
25. DART spacecraft has hit an asteroid on 27th September. DART (Double Asteroid Redirection Test) spacecraft hit the asteroid Dimorphos, which is orbiting around primary asteroid Didymos. The mission has succeeded in deflecting the trajectory of the pair of space rocks.
1. Recently an MoU has been signed between Pharmacopoeia Commission for Indian Medicine and Homeopathy (Ministry of AYUSH) and Pharmacopoeia Commission of India (Ministry of Health and Family Welfare) to achieve "One Herb, One Standard".
2. Ministry of Women and Child Development is celebrating 5th Rashtriya Poshan Maah 2022 from 1st to 30th September 2022. This year, with the main focus on "Mahila aur Swasthya" and "Bacha aur Shiksha", Poshan Maah is to be started as Poshan Panchayat through Gram Panchayats.
3. The Department of Pharmaceuticals has recently given 'in-principle' approval to the proposals to set up bulk drug parks in three states- Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh under the scheme of "Promotion of Bulk Drug Parks". This is a major initiative to support bulk drug manufacturing in the country.
4. Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently announced that 14,500 schools across the country will be developed and upgraded under the PM-Shri scheme. The scheme was announced by the Union Education Minister Dharmendra Pradhan in June 2022.
5. Recently, the central government launched a new i-STEM (Indian Science Technology and Engineering Facilities) initiative named "Women in Engineering, Science and Technology (WEST)". The WEST program is aimed at women from STEM backgrounds and will empower them to contribute to the science, technology and innovation ecosystem.
6. President Draupadi Murmu recently launched the 'Pradhan Mantri TB Mukt Bharat Abhiyan' and the Nikshay 2.0 portal to eliminate TB by 2025 through a virtual event. Under this campaign, any person, any representative or organization can adopt TB patients and the adopted patients will be taken care of.
7. The Empowered Committee headed by NITI Aayog CEO Parameswaran Iyer recently approved the first distribution of incentives for mobile manufacturing. This production-linked incentive scheme will give India a competitive position in the field of electronics manufacturing.
8. Uttar Pradesh has constructed largest number of lakes under the Indian Government's ambitious Mission Amrit Sarovar. Uttar Pradesh has constructed 8,462 Amrit Sarovars (lakes) under the Modi Government's ambitious Mission Amrit Sarovar, which aims to conserve water for the future generation.
9. NITI Aayog has recently hosted the inaugural edition of Shoonya Forum in Delhi to commemorate the first anniversary of Shoonya Campaign. At the Shoonya Forum, 25 Shoonya partners have announced their commitment to accelerate India's transition to Electronic Vehicles and improve air quality for citizens in the country.
10. The Union MSME minister Narayan Rane recently inaugurated 72 units assisted under the PMEGP and disbursed margin money subsidy to 720 PMEGP beneficiaries. PMEGP is a flagship scheme of the Union MSME ministry. Its purpose of this credit linked subsidy scheme is to boost jobs through the establishment of micro enterprises and factories in rural and urban regions of India.
11. The upgraded district disability rehabilitation centres (DDRC) have speech, visual therapy and psychologists. The upgraded model DDRCs are situated in Badaun, Pilibhit, Bareilly, Balaghat, Golaghat, Ahmedabad, Amravati, Kullu and Rampur.
12. '2022 UN Interagency Task Force, and WHO Special Programme on Primary Health Care Award' was conferred to India for its India Hypertension Control Initiative (IHCI). The UN award was conferred at the UN General Assembly side event that was held on 21st September, 2022 in New York.
13. The Indian Government is looking to use special AC train to promote the proposed Ambedkar Circuit that covers various places in India associated with B. R. Ambedkar. The Union Tourism Minister, while inaugurating a 3-day conference of state tourism ministers in Dharamshala, announced the launch of a special train to cover the Ambedkar Circuit.
14. A convergence portal was jointly launched by the Union Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MoFPI) and Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare to increase the potential of India's agriculture and food processing sector. The convergence portal brings together Agriculture Infrastructure Fund (AIF) scheme, Pradhan Mantri Micro Food Enterprises Upgradation Scheme (PMFME) and Pradhan Mantri Kisan Sampada Yojana (PMKSY).
15. USD 350 million in aid has been approved by the World Bank for the "Systems Reform Endeavors for Transformed Health Achievement" in Gujarat or the SRESTHA-G project. This project aims on transforming key health delivery systems in Gujarat. This programme will also be focusing on the key areas of improving equity, quality, and inclusiveness of primary healthcare services for all adolescent girls in the state.
16. The Indian Government's Make India initiative has completed eight years. The government's flagship initiative has helped 27 sectors to make significant progress, including manufacturing and services sectors.
17. PM-GKAY scheme has been extended for 3 more months until the end of December 2022. This scheme was scheduled to end on 30th September. The government will distribute 122 lakh metric tonnes of food grains under the seventh phase this scheme from October to December 2022.
18. The MSME ministry organized a national SC-ST hub conclave in Gujarat. The Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) organized the event on 28th September to raise awareness about the National SC-ST Hub (NSSH) scheme and other schemes of the union ministry.
Awards & Honours
1. Ramon Magsaysay Awards were announced recently. This year the award will go to Sothiara Chim, Psychiatrist (Cambodia), Tadashi Hattori, Ophthalmologist (Japan), Bernadette Madrid, Pediatrician (Philippines) and Gary Bencheghib, activist and filmmaker (Indonesia).
2. Recently, three cities in India have joined the UNESCO Global Network of Learning Cities. These include two cities Thrissur and Nilambur in Kerala and Warangal in Telangana. Warangal is the second UNESCO recognition for Telangana. Earlier, Ramappa Temple in Mulugu district was included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
3. The world's largest museum on Harappan culture is currently being set up in Rakhigarhi, Haryana. The museum on Harappan culture in Rakhigarhi would showcase some 5,000 year old artefacts belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization.
4. The temple city of Varanasi was nominated as the first-ever SCO Tourism and Cultural Capital during the recently held SCO Summit. During the 22nd Meeting of Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Council of Heads of State held in Samarkand, Uzbekistan, Varanasi was nominated as the first-ever SCO Tourism and Cultural Capital for the period of 2022 - 23.
5. Poland has opened a new sea waterway to enable ships to sail from the Baltic Sea and the Bay of Gdansk to ports of Vistula lagoon without relying on Strait of Pilawa in Russia. The new canal was opened on the 83rd anniversary of the Soviet invasion of Poland during the Second World War.
6. '2022 UN Interagency Task Force and WHO Special Programme on Primary Health Care Award' was conferred to India for its India Hypertension Control Initiative (IHCI). The UN award was conferred at the UN General Assembly side event that was held on 21st September 2022 in New York.
7. 2023 Breakthrough Prizes conferred to individuals who made key contributions in the scientific growth. The Breakthrough Prizes are international awards conferred under three categories - mathematics, fundamental physics and life sciences.
8. Khosta-2 variant of coronavirus found in Russian bats in Sochi National Park. A team of American researchers have found the Khosta-2 in Russian bats. The zoonotic virus is capable of infecting humans. This is unlike the Khosta-1, which is also found in Russian bats but cannot easily spread to humans.
9. Ayushman Utkrishtata Awards conferred to the top performers in the implementation of Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri - Jan Arogya Yojana (AB PM-JAY). The National Health Authority, the implementing agency of the AB PMJAY, presented the Ayushman Utkrishtata Puraskaar (Ayushman Excellence Awards).
10. The fourth tiger reserve has been notified by the Uttar Pradesh Government. The state cabinet has approved the notification of Uttar Pradesh's fourth tiger reserve in the Ranipur Wildlife Sanctuary (RWS) in Chitrakoot district under the Wild life (Protection) Act of 1972.
1. Pallathuruthi Boat Club recently won the 68th edition of the Nehru Trophy for a boat race held on the Punnamada Lake in Alappuzha district of Kerala. This edition of the Boat Race, held after a gap of two years due to the COVID-19 pandemic, was flagged off by D. K. Joshi, the Lieutenant Governor of Andaman and Nicobar.
2. Recently, Union Home Minister Amit Shah unveiled the anthem and mascot of the 36th National Games at TransStadia's EKA Arena in Ahmedabad. It will be held across 6 cities of Gujarat, in which all the 28 states and 8 Union Territories will participate.
3. Tokyo Olympic gold medalist Neeraj Chopra has become the first Indian to win the prestigious Zurich Diamond League Final 2022 in Switzerland. Chopra was also awarded the Diamond Trophy, prize money of US$ 30,000 and a wild card for the 2023 World Athletics Championships in Budapest, Hungary.
4. The 2022 US Open is a tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center. It was the overall 142th edition of the US Open, the fourth and final Grand Slam event of the year 2022.
5. The Union Cabinet has approved the signing for hosting the FIFA Under-17 Women's World Cup 2022 in India. The 2022 FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup is the 7th edition of the FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup. India was to host the 2020 edition, which was cancelled because of the COVID-19 pandemic.
6. On 15th September, 2022, Roger Federer announced his retirement from the international tennis at the age of 41. The Laver Cup, which is set to commence on 23rd September, will be Roger Federer's final tournament. He was the first person in the world to win 20 grand slam titles.