MBO is suggested by Peter F Drucker in 1954. Management by objectives (MBO), also known as management by results (MBR), was first popularized by Peter Drucker in his 1954 book The Practice of Management. Management by objectives is the process of defining specific objectives within an organization that management can convey to organization members, then deciding on how to achieve each objective in sequence.
Scalar chain means hierarchy levels. The concept of hierarchy is a universal phenomenon of organization which means the scalar chain implying a ladder structured in a pyramidical fashion with successive several steps interlinked with each other, from top to bottom.
Under which control system only extra ordinary or exceptional deviations are reported to management for remedial action
Under MBE control system only extra ordinary or exceptional deviations are reported to management for remedial action. Management by exception is one of the many management practices or styles. It provides you with a specific type of framework that guides the way your management goes about planning, organizing, and controlling, i.e. the core management functions. It provides a set of processes and principles you choose to follow and implement in your management.
The oldest type of organization is line organization. Line organization structure is the oldest and simplest form of organization. In these organizations, a supervisor exercises direct supervision over a subordinate. Also, authority flows from the top-most person in the organization to the person in the lowest rung.
MBE is a technique of management Control. Management by exception (MBE), when applied to business is a style of management that gives employees the responsibility to take decisions and to fulfill their work or projects by themselves. It consists of focus and analysis of statistically relevant anomalies in the data.