A compound pipe of diameter d1, d2 and d3 having lengths $${l_1},\,{l_2}$$  and $${l_3}$$ is to be replaced by an equivalent pipe of uniform diameter d and of the same length $$l$$ as that of the compound pipe. The size of the equivalent pipe is given by

The normal stress is same in all directions at a point in a fluid

The specific speed (Ns) of a centrifugal pump is given by

In an outward flow reaction turbine

In an inward flow reaction turbine

If a pump is handling water and is discharging a certain flow Q at a constant total dynamic head requiring a definite B.H.P., the same pump when handling a liquid of specific gravity 0.75 and viscosity nearly same as of water, the horse power required will be

The efficiency of jet propulsion for a ship with inlet orifices at right angles to the direction of motion of ship is given by

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