31.
Assertion A : From consideration of structural soundness and economy of design, most codes control the maximum slenderness ratio of masonry walls and columns.
Reason R : By controlling the maximum slenderness ratio, failure is by excessive stress and not by buckling.
Select your answer according to codes given below:

32.
Assertion A : Limiting value of slenderness ratio for a column is less than that of a wall.
Reason R : A column can buckle around either of the two horizontal axes while a wall can buckle around only one axis.
Select your answer according to the codes given below:

33.
Consider the following statements: The use of relatively weak mortar
(i) Will accommodate movements due to loads and cracking if any and will be distributed as thin hair cracks which are less noticeable or harmful.
(ii) Will result in reduction of stresses due to differential expansion of masonry units.