Height of instrument method of levelling is

When a star is between the pole and the horizon, the relationship between latitude (λ), zenith distance (z) and declination δ, is

The nearest star is so far away from the earth that the directions to it from two diametrically opposite points on the earth differs less than

Right ascension of a heavenly body is its equatorial angular distance measured

$$\alpha $$ and $$\beta $$ are the angles subtended by a point of elevation h at their air station with respective plumb points. Photo scale and focal length of the lens being ‘S’ and ‘f’ respectively. Parallax displacement of the point due to relief, is

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