In Turkey, a national movement arose under Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, who was a Pro-western nationalist. He, supported by the western powers, abolished the position of the Caliph. Naturally the Muslims in India became anti British, as the power and influence of their religious leader was ended. Muslims were especially upset about the future of the Islamic places of worship after the allied powers had partitioned the Turkish Empire.
After the failure of the Civil Disobedience Movement, Mahatma Gandhi laid emphasis on
The movement continued to linger in a non-effective manner till early April 1934 when Mahatma Gandhi announced his decision to withdraw the Civil Disobedience Movement. With these developments, the second phase of the Civil Disobedience Movement came to an end. The constructive programme may otherwise and more fittingly be called construction of Poorna Swaraj or complete independence by truthful and nonviolent means. Effort for construction of Independence so called through violent and, therefore, necessarily untruthful means we know only too painfully. Look at the daily destruction of property, life and truth in the present war. Complete Independence through truth and non-violence means the independence of every unit, be it the humblest of the nation, without distinction of race, colour or creed.
The peasant movements, revolts, riots, struggles, etc. in 19th century, India remained mainly localised because
On 8 August 1942 at the All-India Congress Committee session in Bombay, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi launched the 'Quit India' movement. The next day, Gandhi, Nehru and many other leaders of the Indian National Congress were arrested by the British Government.