The economy of Rig-vedic Aryan was dependent on pastoralism and agriculture. Cattle was the measure of wealth. The wealthyman was called Gomat. They used the term 'Aghanya' for cow which mean not to be killed.
Division of the Vedic society into four classes is clearly mentioned in the
A few ancient Upanishads, especially the ones derived from the Brahmanas, also contain information about them to denote their spiritual significance. Apart from the Vedas, our knowledge of rituals also comes to us from other sources such as the Tantras, Agama Shastras, and several Vaishnava texts.
Vishnu Sharma was an Indian scholar and author who is believed to have written the Panchatantra collection of fables. The exact period of the composition of the Panchatantra is uncertain, and estimates vary from 1200 BCE to 300 CE.
The Upanishads are a collection of texts of religious and philosophical nature, written in India probably between c. 800 BCE and c. 500 BCE, during a time when Indian society started to question the traditional Vedic religious order. Some of their speculations and philosophy were compiled into the Upanishads.
The 'Vishnu Purana' is one of the eighteen Mahapuranas, a genre of ancient and medieval texts of Hinduism. It is an important Pancharatra text in the Vaishnavism literature corpus. The manuscripts of Vishnu Purana have survived into the modern era in many versions.
Charvaka, originally known as Lokayata and Bṛhaspatya, is the ancient school of Indian materialism. Charvaka holds direct perception, empiricism, and conditional inference as proper sources of knowledge, embraces philosophical skepticism and rejects Vedas, Vedic ritualism, and supernaturalism.
In the later 20th century, ideas were refined along with data accrual, and migration and acculturation were seen as the methods whereby Indo-Aryans and their language and culture spread into northwest India around 1500 BCE. The term "invasion" is only being used nowadays by opponents of the Indo-Aryan Migration theory.
The Hindu social sacraments such as marriage etc. are performed on the basis of the rituals described in the
The Grihya Sutras are sacred Hindu texts containing information regarding Vedic domestic rites and rituals meant for the householders. The Grihya Sutras as their name suggests deal with domestic rituals such as conception, birth, initiation (upanayanam), marriage, death etc.