42.
A closely coiled helical spring is acted upon by an axial force. The maximum shear stress developed in the spring is τ. The half of the length of the spring if cut off and the remaining spring is acted upon by the same axial force. The maximum shear stress in the spring in new condition will be

44.
While designing a screw in a screw jack against buckling failure, the end conditions for the screw are taken as