In a pressure vessel containing multiple openings of various dimensions at different parts, stress concentration at the edges of the opening is maximum which becomes negligibly small beyond the area covered by __________ times the hole diameter.

For storing hazardous chemicals in large storage tanks, the minimum safe distance between the two tanks should range between __________ times the tank diameter.

In case of saddle packing (e.g., berl and intralox saddles), the maximum size of the packing should not exceed __________ of the column diameter.

In packed towers provided with pall rings liquid redistributors are positioned at heights of every 6 metres or 5 - 10 times the column diameter, whichever is less. Maximum size of the pall rings should not exceed __________ of the column diameter.

In a shell and tube heat exchanger, tube side __________ of the mass velocity.

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